Here are standard formats and examples for basic information that is bibliographic by the American Psychological Association (APA). To learn more about the APA format, see http.org this is certainly://www.apastyle.
Your directory of works cited has to start at the end of the paper on a page that is new the centered title, References. Alphabetize the entries in your list by the author’s last name, using the letter-by-letter system (ignore spaces and other punctuation.) Just the initials associated with the first and names that are middle given. In the event that author’s name is unknown, alphabetize by the title, ignoring any A, An, or The.
For dates, spell out of the names of months when you look at the text of your paper, but abbreviate them when you look at the listing of works cited, with the exception of May, June, and July. Use either the day-month-year style (22 July 1999) or the month-day-year style (July 22, 1999) and become consistent. Utilizing the style that is month-day-year make sure to add a comma after the year unless another punctuation mark goes there.
Underlining or Italics?
When reports were written on typewriters, the true names of publications were underlined because most typewriters had not a way to print italics. If you write a bibliography by hand, you should still underline the names of publications. But, then publication names should be in italics as they are below if you use a computer. Always check with your instructor regarding their preference of utilizing italics or underlining. Our examples use italics.
All APA citations should use hanging indents, that is, the first type of an entry should really be flush left, plus the second and subsequent lines should really be indented 1/2″.
Capitalization, Abbreviation, and Punctuation
The APA guidelines specify using sentence-style capitalization for the titles of books or articles, therefore you should capitalize just the first word of a title and subtitle. The exceptions to the rule will be titles that are periodical proper names in a title that ought to still be capitalized. The periodical title is run in title case, and is followed closely by the quantity number which, aided by the title, can also be italicized.
If there is one or more author, use an ampersand (&) before the name of this author that is last. If there are many than six authors, list only the first one and use et al. for the others.
Put the date of publication in parentheses soon after the true name associated with author. Place a period following the closing parenthesis. Try not to italicize, underline, or put quotes all over titles of shorter works within longer works.
Allen, T. (1974). Vanishing wildlife of United States. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society.
Boorstin, D. (1992). The creators: a reputation for the heroes associated with imagination. New York: Random House.
Nicol, A. M., & Pexman, P. M. (1999). Presenting your findings: A practical guide for creating tables. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Searles, B., & Last, M. (1979). A reader’s guide to science fiction. New York: Facts on File, Inc.
Toomer, J. (1988). Cane. Ed. Darwin T. Turner. New York: Norton.
Encyclopedia & Dictionary
Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In the latest encyclopedia britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.
Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
Pettingill, O. S., Jr write my essay for me. (1980). Falcon and Falconry. World book encyclopedia. (pp. 150-155). Chicago: World Book.
Tobias, R. (1991). Thurber, James. Encyclopedia americana. (p. 600). New York: Scholastic Library Publishing.
Magazine & Newspaper Articles
Format: Author’s last name, first initial. (Publication date). Article title. Periodical title, volume number(issue number if available), inclusive pages.
Note: Do not enclose the title in quotation marks. Put a period of time following the title. Then give the page range (in regular type) without “pp. if a periodical includes a volume number, italicize it and” If the periodical does not use volume numbers, as in newspapers, use p. or pp. for page numbers. Note: Unlike other periodicals, p. or pp. precedes page numbers for a newspaper reference in APA style.
Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.
Henry, W. A., III. (1990, 9) april. Making the grade in the current schools. Time, 135, 28-31.
Kalette, D. (1986, 21) july. California town counts town to quake that is big. USA Today, 9, p. A1.
Kanfer, S. (1986, 21) july. Heard any books that are good? Time, 113, 71-72.
Trillin, C. (1993, 15) february. Culture shopping. New Yorker, pp. 48-51.
Website or Webpage
Online document: Author’s name. (Date of publication). Title of work. Retrieved month day, year, from full URL
Note: When citing Internet sources, refer to the specific website document. If a document is undated, use “n.d.” (for no date) right after the document title. Break a lengthy URL that would go to another line after a slash or before a period. Continually look at your references to online documents. There’s absolutely no period following a URL. Note: if you fail to find several of this information, cite what is present.
Devitt, T. (2001, 2) august. Lightning injures four at music festival. The Why? Files. Retrieved 23, 2002, from http://whyfiles.org/137lightning/index.html january
Dove, R. (1998). Lady freedom in our midst. The Electronic Text Center. Retrieved June 19, 1998, from Alderman Library, University of Virginia website: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/subjects/afam.html
Note: If a document is contained within a sizable and complex website (such as that for a university or a government agency), identify the host organization and the relevant program or department before giving the URL for the document itself. Precede the URL with a colon.